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Prof. Dr. Mustafa SOFİKERİM | Urology

What is Kidney? How is its structure? What are its functions?

Our kidneys are located around the waist just behind our belly and are about 10 cm long. There are two adrenal glands that produce hormone secretion just above our two kidneys. In our kidneys, arteries, veins, nerves and urinary canals are available.

Our kidneys filter out harmful substances in the blood. Kidneys combine these harmful substances with excess water in the body to the urine and these substances are discharged into the bladder. When the pouch is full, we signal to the brain and feel the need to go to the toilet. The general functions of the kidneys are to provide acid and base balance in the blood, to adjust the electrolyte balance of water, to discharge harmful substances. They work with kidneys, kidney pituitary, hormones and stimuli from the nervous system.

Structure of Kidneys

Approx. 120-150 gr. and lengths of 10 cm. The kidneys are in the form of beans. Our kidneys consist of 80% water, 4% fat, 15% protein and inorganic salts. Within 24 hours, a very large amount of blood passes through the kidneys. About 180 liters of liquid is filtered from this blood ratio. A portion of this fluid is sucked back into the liquid and the remaining 4 liters of urine is expelled from the body.


Working of kidneys

In the kidneys, there are substances that are absorbed from the urine such as salt, bicarbonate, water, protein, sugar. In the excreted urine, there are urea, sodium and metabolic fluids. While doing all these operations, the kidneys consume about 30 liters of oxygen. When the kidneys are performing the filtration process, 20% of the blood in the heart goes to the kidneys. In addition, 100 calorie heat energy is generated in the filtering process.


The Function of Kidneys

Our kidneys work to preserve our body balance. We need to drink plenty of water to achieve this balance. The hypothalamus center in the brain determines how much water we drink during the day. When the fluids in our bodies are reduced, the hypothalamus gives a central thirst alarm. The salivary glands stop working and we want to drink water when our mouth is dry. Drinking water is very important because water loss in the body reaches 10%, sudden death can occur or the kidneys may go bankrupt. If the thirst in the brain orders the central water to hold, the kidneys will be damaged. If you drink 1 liter of water, the kidneys increase the urine by 1 liter. In summary, our kidneys know how much water in the body, according to it, reduces or increases urine formation. Therefore, they are of vital importance.